**Number Sense**refers to the understanding of numbers and their various uses and interpretations. Students with number sense are able to understand numbers and use them effectively in everyday living. The term, number sense, may include the ability to recognize the relative magnitude of numbers, as well as other concepts like ranking, comparisons, measurement, rounding, percentages, and estimation. The following books and online resources provide assistance in introducing number sense to young children (kindergarten through first grade).

**Books**

Anno's Counting Book by Mitsumasa Anno, illus. by Mitsumasa Anno. 1986. 32 pp. HarperCollins. (978-0064431231). Gr. K.

**This book is a great way to introduce connections to other math ideas that can be found in the classroom, such as months of the year and time of the day. The book is great because it allows children many opportunities to count objects on the page. This is great as students who are just learning numbers and how to count can see the numbers and also be able to see the objects introduced in various ways.**

The Baker's Dozen by Dan Andreasen, illus. by Dan Andreasen. 2007. 32 pp. Henry Holt Co. (978-0805078091).Gr. K.

This book provides great insight on how to count from 1 to 13. The way that the counting is introduced is engaging as the baker counts the delicious treats. This book is a creative way to work with students on counting items that can be found outside of the classroom!

1 Hunter by Pat Hutchins, illus. by Pat Hutchins. 1986. 24 pp. Greenwillow Books. (978-0688065225). Gr. K.

This book is about a hunter who is looking for animals. The book is great because children will love to count the animals as the story continues to develop. It is a great book to use to introduce the numbers 1 to 10.

This book has wonderful illustrations that help to make the story of the 10 rubber ducks one that children will always enjoy. The book introduces the numbers one through ten by telling a story of what happened to the rubber ducks that fell off a shipping boat. This book is great for children who are in the emergent stage who are just learning numbers, as well as students who are a little bit older!

Ten Black Dots by Donald Crews, illus. by Donald Crews. 1986. 32 pp. Greenwillow Books. (978-0688060671). Gr. K.

This is a great counting book that provides creative ways to count objects. It provides many ideas for classroom activities. Overall, the book is great for young children as it uses everyday objects such as the sun to count/introduce numbers.

Ten, Nine, Eight by Molly Bang, illus. by Molly Bang. 1996. 24 pp. Greenwillow Books. (978-0688149017). Gr. K.

This book provides a great story line as it uses numbers to count down the steps of a father getting his daughter ready for bed. This book is very easy to follow and it teaches students how to count from 10 to 1. It is a great book for early elementary counting.

**Web Resources**

This website is a great site for a variety of mathematical activities. This specific activity practicing counting from 1 to 22. It is a great learning activity as it will not allow incorrect answers. The activity can be played online or printed out.

This website provides a large amount of games and activities for children. There are flashcards with numbers as well as cards with number words. There are also a wide variety of games that work on odd and even numbers and counting by ones, twos, fives, and tens. as words. This is website is useful for all levels of math understanding.

This website an interactive site that provides a wealth of activities and games for children. This is great for students are learning basic number concepts. These activities can be played on the internet or may be printed out and used during class.

Big Sea Count Counting Game

This site is a great resource for young children as the activity asks the participant to count the sea items. This activity can be completed independently or with a partner. There is audio to go along with it, but it can be turned off.

Apples for the Teacher

This site is a great resource for young children as the activity asks the participant to count the sea items. This activity can be completed independently or with a partner. There is audio to go along with it, but it can be turned off.

Apples for the Teacher

This site is great for all levels of learners as it provides a wide range of activities. There are games specifically for counting, as well as activities that work with numbers. Overall, this resource can be helpful for teachers who are looking for new activities for math.

**For Teachers**

*Virginia Standards of Learning K.2*

K.2 The student, given a set containing 15 or fewer concrete objects, will

a) tell how many are in the set by counting the number of objects orally;

b) write the numeral to tell how many are in the set; and

c) select the corresponding numeral from a given set of numerals.

*Background Information from Curriculum Framework*

- Counting involves two separate skills: verbalizing the list of standards numbers in order and connecting this sequence with the objects in the set being counted, using one-to-one correspondence. This can be achieved by moving, touching, or pointing to objects as the number words are spoken.
- Articulating the characteristics of each numeral when writing numbers has been found to reduce the amount of time it takes to learn to write numerals.
- Zero is a number and a digit. As a number, it plays a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers, and many other algebraic structures. As a digit, zero is used as a placeholder in systems.
- Conservation of number and cardinality principle are two important milestones in development to attaching meaning to counting.
- The cardinality principle refers to concept that the last counted number describes the total amount of the counted set. It is an extension of one-to-one correspondence.
- Conservation of number is the understanding that the number of objects remains the same when they are rearranged spatially.

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