Time is a unit of measurement that can be interpreted as a quantity or as a position in a sequence. In learning about time, it is important to develop an understanding of duration of time, sequencing of events, and mechanics of reading time pieces (analog and digital clocks). By the end of elementary school, students should understand how to place a series of events into time order, how to measure the amount of time that has passed using different units, and what the standard units of measure with a clock and a calendar, respectively.

**Books**

A Child's Calendar by John Updike. Illus. by Trina Schart Hyman. 2002. 32pp. Holiday House, (978-0823417667). Gr. K-3.

This book is a collection of twelve poems that describe the activities that a child may experience during his/her lifetime as well as the changes in the weather in each month of the year. There are great, colorful, and detailed illustrations with each poem. This is a great way to talk about time as it causes students to think about the time of the year as well as the actual month that is being described. It also is a great way to incorporate poetry into the lesson.

A Second Is a Hiccup by Hazel Hutchins. Illus. by Kady MacDonald Denton. 2007. 40pp. Arthur A. Levine Books, (978-043981062). Gr. PreK-3

This book presents units of time using creative, child-friendly terms. It uses non-standard units to explain standard units. For example, a second lasts as long as one hiccup; a week lasts as long as seven nights of sleep. Overall, this is a great book for introducing time as it helps children to relate how long a minute or an hour is without specifically providing the amount of time.

It's About Time by Stuart J. Murphy. Illus. by John Speirs. 2005. 40pp. HarperCollins, (978-0060557690). Gr. K-2.

This book is about a young boy's everyday activities during various moments of the day. Each page shows what he is doing and includes both an analog and a digital clock showing the time. While this book is somewhat simple, it is great for introducing different clocks and learning how to tell time.

Tell Time with the Very Busy Spider by Eric Carle. Illus. by Eric Carle. 2006. 18pp. Penguin Group, (978-0448444192). Gr. K-2.

This is a great book for introducing time as it has a clock with moveable arms and hands so that children can practice showing what time it is during the story. It is a very cute story about the events that a spider experiences as he goes through his busy day. This book would fun to have the whole class guess what time of day it is and then have someone come up and make the clock show that specific time.

What Time Is It, Mr. Crocodile? by Judy Sierra. Illus. by Doug Cushman. 2004. 32pp. Harcourt Children's Books, (978-0152164454). Gr. K-3.

This book is about Mr. Crocodile and how he attempts to make a meal out of five little monkeys that have been bothering him. He creates a schedule for catching, cooking, and eating the monkeys, but his plans continue to get messed up over and over again by the smart monkeys. Each page includes a clock that clearly displays the time that Mr. Crocodile attempts to follow through with his plans.

**Websites**

This game allows students to practice using the hour hand and the second hand to tell time. In order to play this game, students must understand that the little hand tells what the hour is and the big hand tells how many minutes it has been in the hour. The student playing has to move the hands to the correct time that it asks for and then press ok. It is great too because there is no time limit, so the student can focus on getting the time right. I think this game would be great for students who have just started to learn about time as well as those who are a little more advanced.

This website provides lesson plans, printable worksheets, as well as interactive games on telling time using seconds, minutes, and hours on a clock. The lessons are basic enough that students will understand and learn the material easily. This site is also great because it provides examples of ways to incorporate time into other parts of the daily lesson such as reading and writing activities.

This web activity is a great resource for students when learning time, as it allows them to review the concepts of time. The student is asked to display the time on the analog clock that the game provides. The only way to get the time that is desired is to go hour by hour; this is great as it shows students that hours and amounts of time cannot be skipped. Once the time that is desired is reached, then the alarm on the clock goes off. This would be a great whole class activity or a small group/individual activity during the beginning phases of learning how to tell time.

This is a really great game site as it allows for students to review all aspects of telling time. While it is set up like a game, it is more like a review as students can receive help while figuring out various aspects of time, such as half-past and quarter-of the hour. Once they have created a time on the clock, a voice will tell them what the clock actually says so that they can develop a greater understanding of what an analog clock's time means.

This game is a great review for students who are learning to read both analog and digital clcoks as it forces children to compare the times shown on each of the clocks. The player is given a time on the analog clock and must chose the digital clock with the time that corresponds with the original time given.

**For Teachers**

Virginia Standard of Learning K.9- The student will tell time to the hour, using both analog and digital clocks.

*Curriculum Framework:*

-Many experiences in relating time to the hour are daily routines and school schedules and help students to develop a personal reference of time.

-Making sense of telling time to the nearest hour is reinforced when the students recognize the positions of the hands on the analog clock and identify the corresponding time to the hour.

Virginia Standard of Learnig 1.8- The student will tell time to the half-hour, using both analog and digital clocks.

*Curriculum Framework:*

-Many experiences using clocks help students to develop an understanding of the telling of time to the half-hour, including:

1. identifying the parts of analog clock

2. demonstrating a given time to the half-hour, using a model clock

3. writing the correct digital time to the half-hour

4. relating time on the half-hour to the daily routines and school schedules.

Virginia Standard of Learning 2.12- The student will tell time and write time to the nearest five minutes, using both analog and digital clocks.

*Curriculum Framework:*

-Telling time requires reading a clock properly. The position of the two hands on an analog clock are read to tell the time.

-The use of a demonstration clock with gears ensures that the position of the hour hand and the minute hand are always precise.

-The face of an analog clock can be divided into four equal parts, called the "quarter hours," which are fifteen minutes each.

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