Addition is the joining or combining of two sets. Students will need to understand the symbols involved in an addition equation, including + and =. Students will also need to understand the terms adding, addition, addend and sum. A solid understanding of addition is needed for students to move on to more complex whole number operations.

Books

The Mission of Addition by Brian P. Cleary. illus. by Brian Gable. 2007. 34pp. First Avenue Editions (978-0822566953). Gr. 2.

This book gives students a strong introduction to addition by defining it and offering everyday examples. It would be helpful instructionally because the text explains what addition means and words equations in a way that is easy to understand. For example, rather than simply seeing the equation 3+6=9, readers are given a context for the numbers and see them in a sentence.

Double Play: Monkeying Around with Addition by Betsy Franco. illus. by Doug Cushman. 2011. 32pp. Tricycle Press (978-1582463841). Gr. 2.

This book is about monkey students who use addition throughout their school day. The add friends, knees and other items familiar to students.

How Many Feet in the Bed? by Diane Johnston Hamm. illus. by Kate Salley Palmer. 1994. 40pp. Simon & Schuster (978-0671899035). Gr. 1-2.

This book tells a story about a girl who counts feet as her family hops in and out of bed. Her family consists of two parents and three children, so there are a few combinations of numbers she has to come up with. A few different skills are put to use in the text; counting by two's and basic addition and subtraction.

Mission: Addition by Loreen Leedy. 1999. 32pp. Holiday House (978-0823414123) Gr. 1-2.

This book is basically a narrative of a class lesson introducing addition. The elements of an addition equation are highlighted and explained clearly. The students in the story go around their classroom looking for objects with which they could make addition equations, perhaps something real students could do during a lesson as well.

How Many Cats? by Lauren Thompson. illus. by Robin Eley. 2009. 32pp. Hyperion Book CH (978-1423108016). Gr. 1-2.

This counting book chronicles the play of a number of cats and a dog. The cats come in the dog's house, up to twenty, and then leave group by group. The story is simple and direct and would therefore be a good tool for struggling students.

Web Sites

Add it up Math Game

This game encourages students to use the number grid to click on potential sums of the given number. It would foster an understanding that there are multiple ways to get to a number by adding, especially since it allows students to pick more than 2 numbers from the grid (for example, if the number you were tying to get to is 9, you could click on 3 3 and 3). Supervision would be needed since there are ads at the bottom of the website.

Addition and Subtraction Teacher Resources and Lessons

This website has a plethora of links, including many games and handouts for addition practice. All are available to be printed for instructional use.

Addition with Manipulatives

This website allows students to work out addition equations by dragging counters into the box to help them add. It is a safe website for students since there are no outside links or ads.

Basic Addition/Subtraction Resources

This website also has a good number of printable resources. It would be a good tool for finding work for students at different learning levels, since some printables focus on numbers 1-10 and others feature more advanced work, like missing parts of equations.

Bumble Numbers

This game allows students to practice basic addition. It's a safe website for students because there aren't any external links or distractions.

**For Teachers**

Virginia Standards of Learning

1.5- The student will recall basic addition facts with sums to 18 or less and the corresponding subtraction facts.

Background Information from the Curriculum Framework

*-*Associate the terms addition, adding, addend, and sum with the concept of joining or combining.

-Provide practice in the use and selection of strategies. Encourage students to develop efficient strategies. (one-more-than, two-more-than, doubles, commutative property)

-Math manipulatives should be used to develop an understanding of addition and subtraction facts. Automaticity is achieved through constant practice.

-Students should master facts to 10 first and then master facts to 18.

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