Subtraction begins in early elementary school and then continues throughout life. One way to ease children into the concept of subtraction is through children's literature. I have chosen a collection of children's books on the subject that also include animals to aid in sparking their interest in the idea of subtraction. The age group that is accommodated through these resources are kindergarten through second grade.

This book takes the topic of subtraction on a shopping trip with five little monkeys and their mom. The monkeys wander off or have to go places repeatedly and allow for plenty of opportunity to discuss how many monkeys we started with, and how many are now on each page. A fun introduction to subtraction with energetic characters, lots of color, and laughs along the way.

This book stars San Diego Zoo's giant panda's Hua Mei and Mei Sheng. Children can learn about subtraction while learning all about panda bears, specifically Hua Mei and Mei Sheng. Students learn what they eat, their weight, and their life expectancies as they are placed into word problems all involving subtraction.

Students learn about subtraction as they aid a pet store worker in figuring out what she needs to order based on how many animals or supplies have already been sold. Real photographs of animals make the book fun and kids will love being the pet store helper!

Students learn the definition of difference, how to write a subtraction problem, and the idea of regrouping through this interactive book that is full of animals. The cartoon, colorful pictures include dialogue bubbles with explanations that are fun and kid-friendly.

Students learn facts about twelve featured endangered animals throughout this book that is cleverly written in rhyme. Each page features an animal, facts about the animal, and a subtraction problem involving it. The watercolor pictures are beautiful and kids will be sure to enjoy facts about the endangered species.

Addition and Subtraction Idea Bank for Teachers

http://www.mathcats.com/grownupcats/ideabankaddition.html

This website is a blog created by and run by teachers that is a forum for listing useful information, lessons and strategies that have worked for teachers in their own classrooms. Teachers have listed questions that they have surrounding the teaching of addition and subtraction over various grades, each having received answers from fellow colleagues that could aid in us on our journey of teaching math to youngsters.

*Five Little Monkeys Go Shopping*. By Eileen Christelow. Illus. by author. 2007. 40p. Sandpiper. (9780618821617). Gr. K-2.This book takes the topic of subtraction on a shopping trip with five little monkeys and their mom. The monkeys wander off or have to go places repeatedly and allow for plenty of opportunity to discuss how many monkeys we started with, and how many are now on each page. A fun introduction to subtraction with energetic characters, lots of color, and laughs along the way.

*By Ann Whitehead Nagda. (2005). 32p. Henry Holt and Co., (9780805076448). Gr. 2-4.**Panda Math: Learning about Subtraction from Hua Mei and Mei Sheng.*This book stars San Diego Zoo's giant panda's Hua Mei and Mei Sheng. Children can learn about subtraction while learning all about panda bears, specifically Hua Mei and Mei Sheng. Students learn what they eat, their weight, and their life expectancies as they are placed into word problems all involving subtraction.

*By Simone Ribke. (2007) 32p. Children's Press, (9780516289021). Gr. K-2.*

*Pet Store Subtraction.*Students learn about subtraction as they aid a pet store worker in figuring out what she needs to order based on how many animals or supplies have already been sold. Real photographs of animals make the book fun and kids will love being the pet store helper!

*By Loreen Leedy. Illus. by author. (2002) 32p. Holiday House, (9780823417643). Gr. 1-3.*

*Subtraction Action*.Students learn the definition of difference, how to write a subtraction problem, and the idea of regrouping through this interactive book that is full of animals. The cartoon, colorful pictures include dialogue bubbles with explanations that are fun and kid-friendly.

*By Suzanne Slade. Illus. by Joan Waites. (2010) 32p. Sylvan Dell Publishing, (9781607180814). Gr. 1-3.*

*What's the Difference: An Endangered Animal Subtraction Story*.Students learn facts about twelve featured endangered animals throughout this book that is cleverly written in rhyme. Each page features an animal, facts about the animal, and a subtraction problem involving it. The watercolor pictures are beautiful and kids will be sure to enjoy facts about the endangered species.

**Websites**Addition and Subtraction Idea Bank for Teachers

http://www.mathcats.com/grownupcats/ideabankaddition.html

This website is a blog created by and run by teachers that is a forum for listing useful information, lessons and strategies that have worked for teachers in their own classrooms. Teachers have listed questions that they have surrounding the teaching of addition and subtraction over various grades, each having received answers from fellow colleagues that could aid in us on our journey of teaching math to youngsters.

Duck Race Subtraction

Get your students racing with subtraction! This website allows for public or private duck races where the student's personally selected rubber ducky gets to swim ahead with each subtraction problem that they get correct. The end of the race even gives the child's percent accuracy and the number of problems completed per minute, great statistics for a teacher to track.

Fishing Subtraction

This website takes kids on a subtraction fishing trip. A little boy is going fishing. At the end of his pole you will find a subtraction equation. You have a choice of three numbered fish to click on to solve it. The students are timed and scored. They can play again and again in attempt to beat their past score or time.

Puny Pet Shop Animal Subtraction

This website helps children open up their very own pet store. Children can select from an easy, medium or hard level and complete subtraction problems in order to fill the fish tank, guinea pig cage, gerbil cage, and bird cage with animals in order for the store to open. It doesn't have a timer, but does keep track of how many problems the child gets correct or wrong. Fun for any child that loves pets!

Subtraction Centers

This website offers games, ideas, and materials written by and used by fellow teachers. Here you will find domino subtraction games, cards to practice number families, and more. A great resource for teachers when making math centers for your classroom.

**For Teachers**

- The student will model adding and subtracting whole numbers, using up to 10 concrete objects.
- The student will recall basic addition facts with sums to 18 or less and the corresponding subtraction facts.
- The student will create and solve one-step story and picture problems using basic addition facts with sums to 18 or less and the corresponding subtraction facts.
- The student will recall addition facts with sums to 20 or less and the corresponding subtraction facts.
- The student, given two whole numbers, each of which is 99 or less, will: a)estimate the difference; and b)find the difference, using various methods of calculation.
- The student will create and solve one- and two-step addition and subtraction problems, using data from simple tables, picture graphs, and bar graphs.
- The student will recognize and describe the related facts that represent and describe the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction.

Subtraction can be viewed as a taking away or separating process or as comparing to find the difference between two sets.

Counting backward from the larger set to determine the difference between two sets is a strategy for subtraction.

Number relationships, including the following, help students develop strategies for adding and subtracting. Instant recognition of the amount in a set of objects that are arranged in a familiar pattern such as the dots on number cubes. One more than, one less than, two more than, two less than.

Associate the terms subtraction, subtracting, minus, and difference with the process of taking away or separating (i.e., removing a set of objects from the given set of objects, finding the difference between two numbers, or comparing two numbers).

Provide practice in the use and selection of strategies. Encourage students to develop efficient strategies. Examples of strategies for developing the basic addition and subtraction facts include counting back; “one-more-than,” “two-more-than” facts; “one-less-than,” “two-less-than” facts; “doubles” to recall addition facts (e.g., 2 + 2 =__; 3 + 3 =__); “near doubles” [e.g., 3 + 4 = (3 + 3) + 1 = __]; “make-ten” facts (e.g., at least one addend of 8 or 9); “think addition for subtraction” (e.g., for 9 – 5 = __, think “5 and what number makes 9?”); use of the commutative property, without naming the property (e.g., 4 +3 is the same as 3 + 4); use of related facts (e.g., 4 + 3 = 7 , 3 + 4 = 7, 7 – 4 = 3, and 7 – 3 = 4); use of the additive identity property (e.g., 4 + 0 = 4), without naming the property but saying, “When you add zero to a number, you always get the original number.”; and use patterns to make sums (e.g., 0 + 5 = 5, 1 + 4 = 5, 2 + 3 = 5, etc.).

Manipulatives should be used to develop an understanding of addition and subtraction facts. Automaticity of facts can be achieved through constant practice which may include games, hands-on activities, flash cards, and paper and pencils.

The problem solving process is enhanced when students create their own story problems; and model word problems, using manipulatives, representations, or number sentences/equations.

Students should experience a variety of problem types related to addition and subtraction, including join and separate problems (action involved); join (for example: Sam had 8 pennies. Tom gave him 3 more. How many pennies does Sam have now? separate (for example: Sam had 11 pennies. He gave 3 to Tom. How many pennies does Sam have now?) part-part-whole problems (no action involved); missing part (for example: There are 8 marbles. Five are shown. How many are missing?) classification problems (for example: Jane had 12 hats. Only 3 of the hats are blue. How many are not blue?) comparison problems (for example: Bill is 7 years old. Alice is 4 years old. How much younger is Alice than Bill?).

Associate the terms subtraction, subtracting, minus, and difference with the process of “taking away” or separating (i.e., removing a set of objects from the given set of objects, finding the difference between two numbers, or comparing two numbers).

Provide practice in the use and selection of strategies. Encourage students to develop efficient strategies.

Subtraction is the inverse operation of addition and is used for different reasons:

to remove one amount from another;

to compare one amount to another; and

to find the missing quantity when the whole quantity and part of the quantity are known.

Three terms often used in subtraction are

minuend → 98

subtrahend → – 41

difference → 57

Regrouping is a process of renaming a number to make subtraction easier.

An understanding of the subtraction algorithm should be built by first using concrete materials and then employing a do-and-write approach (i.e., use the manipulatives, then record what you have done). This connects the activity to the written form of the algorithm.

Addition and subtraction are inverse operations, that is, one undoes the other:

3 + 4 = 7 7 – 3 = 4

7 – 4 = 3 4 + 3 = 7

For each addition fact, there is a related subtraction fact.

Developing strategies for solving missing addends problems and the missing part of subtraction facts builds an understanding of the link between addition and subtraction. To solve

9 – 5 = __, think 5 + __ = 9.

Demonstrate joining and separating sets to investigate the relationship between addition and subtraction.

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