**Subtraction**is the process of removing some objects from a group. This concept may be difficult to grasp for some children because they need to be able to think backwards, so integrating manipulative into the lesson and practice sections of class can result in a very positive outcome. An even more entertaining idea is to incorporate food items such as candy, cereal pieces, grapes or some other small finger-foods into your lessons to hold the students more focused on the lesson.

**Books:**

*Five Little Monkeys Go Shopping.*By Eileen Christelow.

Illus. By the Author. 2007. 40pp. Clarion Books, (978-0618821617). Gr. 2.

This book begins with a Mama monkey getting ready to take her babys shopping for clothes. She asks them to stay in one place but they want to explore and find food so she spends the rest of the book looking for them. While the students will surely love this story line it also integrates math skills such as counting, addition and subtraction which will help them all learn and practice the concepts they see illustrated during this book.

*Good-Bye, Pie!*By Tim Healy. Illus. By Jan Lewis. 2003. 24pp. Readers Digest, (978-0794402006). Gr. 1-2

This book is an exciting one for students because it allows them to be creative and active. This colorful storybooks help teach young learners simple

math concepts in a fun, hands-on way. In addition to the lively, easy-to-read stories, the book has a pocket containing punch-out pieces that will help keep students attention and allow them to see a visual representation of the equations they are dealing with.

*Hershey's Kisses Subtraction Book.*By Jerry Pallotta. Illus. By Rob Bolster. 2002. 32pp. Carthwheel Publisher, (9780439337793). Gr 1-2.

This book seems like a great choice because of the vivid pictures which illustrate the important math concept on every page. The middle of the book is also very helpful because it provides the readers with a basics subtraction table which starts at 0-0 and ends with 18-9. Students would be able to follow along with the math problems presented in this book while also being able to stay completely focused because the theme is chocolate and at the end of the book they will be able to eat it.

*Lulu's Lemonade.*By Barbara DeRubertis. Illus. By Paige Billin-Frye. 2000. 32pp. Kane Press, (978-1575650937).Gr. 2-3.

In this story Mattie and Martin decided to make lemonade for Mattie's little sister. In order to make this drink they must figure out what the recipe is asking for specifically. Readers are invited to grab some measuring containers and do their own practicing making their own drinks. This book would have to be altered slightly by the teachers questions to make sure that it truly revolves around subtraction, but it defiantly has the ability to really help students learn.

*Math Potatoes: Mind-Stretching Brain Food.*By Greg Tang. Illus. By Harry Briggs. 2005. 40pp. Scholastic Press, (978-0439443906). Gr. 2-4.

I enjoy this book because it uses rhyming verse and food themes to capture children's attention while also exceeding simple counting books. The storys and poems in this picture book are complex and are paired with tricky visual representations which will make all of the students carefully add, subtract, and even multiply if they are ready!

**Websites:**

This website offers a game for students to play which revolves around monsters, food and subtraction. The children needs to help the lunch lady serve all of the hungry little aliens exactly what they want by reading the subtraction problem above their heads. The the students are able to create their own dishes to serve as a reward. I really love this game because it also allows the students to choose number families that they want to practice and will easily keep them occupied.

This website allows students to open their own milkshake shops! During this game they will make milkshakes and practicing their math facts in order to serve the shakes to their customers. This game also gives students incentives to keep them playing by granting them money for each correct answer and allowing them to use that money to decorate their personal store!

This game has the students helping Chubz who is a new employee at the diner. Students will help Chubz complete many different jobs and can actually practice addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division depending on what they want to learn. This game also has levels which could really help teachers differentiate their lessons.

Baxley is a bear who is hungry and wants some help as he fishes for the perfect catch. During this game students need to move Baxley back and forth to catch the right fish to complete his subtraction equation. This game does have different levels for students to practice on but all of them are pretty quick so student should use this game strictly for reviewing purposes.

This is one of my favorite games because it has students practicing their subtraction before allowing them to attempt to complete a level as a farmer looking for food. This game would really grab their attention and because it keeps a record it could also be a fun assessment for teachers to use.

**For Teachers:**

*Virginia Standard of Learning:*

2.5 The student will recall addition facts with sims to 20 or less and the corresponding subtraction facts.

*Background Information from Curriculum Framework:*

- Associate the term subtracting, minus, and difference with the process of "taking away" or separating (i.e., removing a set of objects from the given set of objects, finding the difference between two numbers, or comparing two numbers).
- Provide practice in the use and selection of strategies. Encourage students to develop efficient strategie. Examples of strategies for developing the basic subtraction facts include:
- Counting back
- "one-less-than," "two-less-than" facts
- "think addition for subtraction," (e.g., for 9-5=_, think "5 and what number make 9?"
- Use related facts (e.g., 7-4=3 and 7-3=4)
- Use of the identity property without naming the property but saying, "when you subtract zero from a number, you always get the original number."

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