Multiplication is an important skill for students to learn. Mastering basic facts is essential and can be difficult for some students. Here are some resources to introduce the concept of multiplication and help students practice basic facts.

Books:

*2x2=Boo: A Set of Spooky Multiplication Stories*. By Loreen Leedy. 1996. 32 pages. illus. Holiday House Publishers (9780823412723). Gr 3-4.

This book uses creepy creatures like vampires and witches to explain multiplication tales. The “characters” are used in examples to count up, and in some cases down (in multiplying zeros). It only concentrates on numbers 0-5, so it should be used in the beginning multiplication lessons, or for remediation or inclusion classes.

*All Aboard Math Reader Station Stop 3 Breakfast at Danny's Diner: A Book About Multiplication*. By Judith Stamper. 2003. 48 pgs. illus. Grosset & Dunlap (9780448432106). Gr. K-3.

This books says for ages 4-8, but the reader must have mastered multiplication to understand it; or at least have a good concept of it. I like how the book uses real life examples of math in a diner to make multiplication relevant to the reader.

*The Amazing Pop-Up Multiplication Book*. By Kate Petty. 1998. 16 pgs. illus. Dutton Juvenile (9780525459989). Gr K-3.

So what kid doesn’t love a pop-up book? It may not be the longest or review all of the facts, or be an involved story behind it, but there is something to be said in a book that engages the children and makes them want to read it!

*Corkscrew Counts: A Story About Multiplication*. By Donna Jo Napoli and Richard Tchen. 2008. 32 pgs. illus. Henry Holt and Co. (9780805076646). Gr K-3.

Another book directed at younger ages but using the multiplication theories as background. But, the story is centered around a party and how many different ways they can mix up the number of people to play games. So, it looks at fact families as well.

*Pigs Go to Market: Halloween Fun with Math and Shopping (Pigs Will Be Pigs)*. By: Amy Axelrod. 1997. 40 pgs. illus. Simon & Schuster Books for Young Readers (9780689810695). Gr 2-4.

This story is uses multiplication and a variety of math skills to compute what candy has been already eaten, and what they will need for the number of guests attending a Halloween party. It is a fun, seasonal book with pictures and multiplication equations.

Websites:

This is a good refresher site or for students that need a visual on multiplication. It has pictures and different colors to reference which pieces are being counted or multiplied.

I found this website and it reminded me of the activity we did in class. You plug numbers to multiply (up to 12), and the columns/row highlight. It shows the two ways to get the answer; by going to the row first and down the column, or the opposite. It can reinforce the fact family activity we did with crayons.

If the website above it too challenging for a student, this may suite them more. At the start of the game, the student has 16 tiles of numbers. A math problem shows in bottom left corner, and the student clicks on the correct answer and the tile disappears. Repeat until all problems are answered and all answers are gone. It gives the correct answer if incorrectly chosen and allows the student to repeat the problem later in the game to ensure understanding.

Here’s a timed 30-second game of single or double digit multiplication. While I wouldn’t use this for my struggling math students, it’s a good site to use for the advanced ones; something to use to differentiate a lesson. The clock starts counting at the first ‘card’ and will display the number correct at the end. The problems shuffle upon reload.

A math teacher created this page to give other teachers resources for multiplication & SMARTBoards. Gives the teacher a little more interactive way to teach this subject in a whole group setting. Could be used as a starter lesson before breaking into smaller groups.

**For Teachers**

*Virginia Standards of Learning*

3.5 The student will recall multiplication facts through the twelves table, and the corresponding division facts.

*Background Information from the Curriculum Framework*

- The development of computational fluency relies on quick access to number facts.
- A certain amount of practice is necessary to develop fluency with computational strategies; however, the practice must be motivating and systematic if students are to develop fluency in computation, whether mental, with manipulative materials, or with paper and pencil.
- Strategies to learn the multiplication facts through the twelves table include an understanding of multiples/skip counting, properties of zero and one as factors, pattern of nines, commutative property, and related facts.
- In order to develop and use strategies to learn the multiplication facts through the twelves table, students should use concrete materials, hundred chart, and mental mathematics.
- To extend the understanding of multiplication, three models may be used:
- The equal-sets or equal-groups model lends itself to sorting a variety of concrete objects into equal groups and reinforces repeated addition or skip counting.
- The array model, consisting of rows and columns (e.g., 3 rows of 4 columns for a 3-by-4 array) helps build the commutative property.
- The length model (e.g., a number line) also reinforces repeated addition or skip counting.

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